It is very difficult to find a person who does not know about these beautiful and picky colors. Many countries have their own legends and myths about the appearance of the Marigolds. Some peoples revere it not only for its resemblance to golden, shining coins, but also for the healing properties that these flowers, popular and widespread throughout the planet, have.
It is customary to decorate flowerbeds with marigolds, plant them along garden paths, they look ideal in flower beds and flowerpots, they go very well with many plants when decorating personal plots.
And every gardener at least once in his life has grown modest, and at the same time, unique flowers in his beds. After all, these flowers perfectly repel insect pests. Moreover, growing Marigolds from seeds is such a simple event that it does not cause any particular difficulties even for novice florists.
Few people know that all the familiar Marigolds have many names. The Latin name for flowers "Tagetes", that is, Tagetes, has its roots in ancient Roman mythology. At the end of the 18th century, when they first appeared on the territory of Russia, they were called "African flowers". In Ukraine, they are known under the name Chornobrivtsi.
In the Land of the Rising Sun, Marigolds are called "flowers of ten thousand years." In Hinduism, they are also revered, and most often these flowers are personified with Krishna. And the Indians have used them since ancient times to perform special, magical rituals. In the UK, Marigolds are known as "marigold" which means "Mary's gold".
Despite the wide range of growth, the true homeland of the Marigolds is Mexico, where these flowers grew in the endless mountainous expanses of Central and South America. The Spanish conquistadors first brought the seeds of the Tagetes to Europe in the 16th century, and later they spread throughout the world.
Marigolds belong to the Asteraceae or Asteraceae family. In the historical homeland, flowers growing in the wild are perennials. But flower beds and flower beds are decorated only by annual representatives of this family.
Marigolds bloom for a very long time and abundantly. When growing flowers in seedlings, the first buds bloom in early to mid-June. Continuous flowering continues until the first autumn frosts.
At the moment, more than 40 types of Marigold flowers are known. But the following types are considered the most popular:
- Erect (African). Bushes have a dense, straight stem. The height of the plants ranges from 45-150 cm. The diameter of the inflorescences is 6-13 cm. Among them there are double, semi-double and simple flowers.
- Thin-leaved (Mexican). Bushes of Marigolds are low, up to 20-40 cm in height, with small flowers, no more than 1.5-3 cm in diameter.
- Rejected (small-colored or French). The height of the bushes is up to 15-50 cm. Plants grow well in width. Inflorescences no more than 4-6 cm.
- Anise. Plants give off a pronounced aroma, somewhat reminiscent of the smell of tarragon.
In order to decorate your site, you can purchase ready-made seedlings, however, growing Marigold flowers from seeds at home is not such a difficult matter. It is only important to correctly determine when to plant Marigolds for seedlings, how to care for seedlings, which site is best suited for flowers.
Some varieties of Marigolds
Most of the inhabitants associate the name of flowers with small, lush inflorescences of predominantly warm colors. But if you look closely at the assortment of varieties on the market, it can be noted that the shape, size of the inflorescences and the color range of flowers are much wider. Appreciate the splendor of the flowers of Marigolds of various varieties in the photo:
And these are just some of the representatives of this family. The color range of numerous varieties has been significantly expanded. You can easily grow Marigolds from seeds with flowers that are colored yellow, orange, reddish brown, burgundy, white or lemon.
Before planting Marigold seeds, it is important to figure out what method you can use to grow flowers, and which one is right for you.
Tagetes are mainly grown in two ways: seedling and non-seedling. And each method has its own advantages.
In a seedless way, you can sow Marigolds directly into open ground. But this method is only suitable for residents of warm regions. After all, flowers planted directly in flower beds bloom a month and a half later than plants grown by seedlings.
The period when you can sow Marigolds in open ground does not come until the end of May - early June. Young, still immature sprouts are not highly resistant to temperature drops, and may die during spring frosts.
In addition, seedlings are a tasty dish for many insects, of which a great many appear on the site in spring.
Tagetes gain color in 40-50 days after sowing. Thus, if you take into account the recommended planting dates for Marigolds immediately in the flower garden, bypassing the stage of growing seedlings, you will not be able to see the first flowers until mid-late July.
That is why many growers, not wanting to take risks, grow Marigolds mainly by the seedling method.
Transplanting the finished seedlings of Marigold flowers into open ground is carried out only after the threat of return frosts has passed, and the air temperature at night will be stable within + 5˚C + 8˚C. Therefore, so that young plants do not stretch, it is important to choose the right time.
Considering that flowers can be transplanted only in 1-2 weeks of June, it means that the optimal time for sowing Marigolds for seedlings comes no later than the second decade of April.
However, flowers belonging to the erect species should be sown 3-4 weeks earlier. This is due to the fact that many varieties belonging to this species grow up to 130-150 cm in height. Accordingly, they need much more time for growth and development than stunted Marigolds.
I would like to mention that these terms are average. If you decide to grow a certain variety of Marigold flowers, be guided by the rules of agricultural technology indicated on the package with seeds.
And one more nuance that affects the determination of the optimal planting time. If, after picking, you have the opportunity to place a container with flowers on a heated loggia or an insulated balcony, then planting marigolds on seedlings can be done a couple of weeks earlier.
Preparation of soil and containers
The soil for growing Marigold seedlings should be light and fertile. If you decide to plant seeds in garden soil, prepare the following soil mixture for 1 kg of garden soil a couple of before the planned work:
- 1 kg of humus or rotted manure;
- 1 kg of peat;
- 0.5 kg of sand.
Thoroughly mix the soil mixture, sprinkle with a light pink solution of potassium permanganate, and place in a warm place.
Soil purchased in specialized stores is perfectly balanced, and preliminary preparation is not required in this case.
Containers for growing seedlings of Marigold flowers are suitable for any: plastic and plastic, boxes and containers, deep and shallow. There are no special preferences and recommendations in this case. It is important that there are drainage holes at the bottom of the container.
Before planting Marigolds, seeds purchased immediately before sowing do not need pretreatment. However, it is still better to soak the self-collected and harvested seed material for 3-4 hours in a disinfecting solution.
The seeds of the Marigold flowers are rather large. They can be planted without the help of special devices.
For different varieties, it is advisable to select different containers and sign them so as not to confuse flowers during transplantation into open ground.
We sow correctly
No special skills are required when sowing Marigolds for seedlings. The algorithm of actions is as follows:
- Place a small layer of drainage on the bottom of the planting containers, as usual.
- Pour the soil prepared in advance on 3/4 of the total container volume.
- If sowing is carried out in separate containers (for example, yogurt cups), put 1-2 seeds in each. If you are planting flower seeds in containers or boxes for growing seedlings, make shallow grooves 2-3 cm apart and spread the seeds in them 1.5-2 cm apart.
- The maximum seeding depth is 0.5-1 cm. Line the furrows and water future flowers.
- Place containers with marigold seedlings in a warm, shaded place.
Flower seeds germinate very quickly, after 1-1.5 weeks. After the first shoots appear, the container or containers with seedlings should be transferred to a bright, warm place. The air temperature in the room when growing Marigold seedlings should be at least + 18˚С + 20˚С.
In the next 2-3 weeks, you only need to water the flowers and monitor their condition.
In the phase of formation of 2-3 true leaves, it's time to start picking Marigolds. You can transplant flower seedlings both in separate containers and in containers or boxes. There are a few tips to follow in order to grow strong and healthy seedlings.
- The soil for the pick and the soil in which the Marigold seedlings were grown must be identical in composition.
- When transplanting seedlings into volumetric containers, you should adhere to the recommended planting pattern of 7x7 cm.
- It is necessary to deepen the seedlings by cotyledon leaves, which is of great importance for the formation and growth of a powerful root system.
- Tall varieties of flowers Marigolds, if necessary, can be dived twice. As soon as the plants grow up and begin to interfere with each other, transplant them into larger containers.
After picking, carefully monitor the condition of the colors. In principle, seedlings are undemanding to care, but reacts very sharply to waterlogging. Abundant watering can provoke the Black Leg fungal disease.
In addition to waterlogging, the appearance of a black leg in Tagetes seedlings can be caused by a low soil temperature or soil that is too heavy in composition. It is undesirable to place a container with flower seedlings on a cold windowsill. You can put insulating materials under the bottoms - foam plastic, rags, pieces of tourist rugs.
When growing seedlings of Marigolds, we must not forget about good lighting. In insufficient light, the seedlings will stretch out and be weak, which will invariably affect flowering. And weakened seedlings tolerate transplanting worse.
The author of the video will tell you how to correctly calculate the timing for planting Marigolds for seedlings, and how to plant seeds:
Open ground transplant
About a week before the planned transplant of Marigolds in open ground, the seedlings must be hardened. Hardening begins with short "walks" lasting 30-40 minutes. Take the flower boxes outside in warm weather. Increase the hardening time gradually.
During the "procedures", the plants should be placed in partial shade, so that they are not exposed to direct sunlight. Otherwise, the delicate foliage of flowers will burn.
Simultaneously with the beginning of hardening, you need to prepare a site for the future flower garden - it should be sunny, with fertile and light soil. Marigolds bloom well in partial shade.
Before planting Chornobrivtsi, be sure to pay attention to the height of the plants so that tall flowers do not obscure the undersized ones.
Please note that you cannot grow Marigold flowers in low areas, where rainwater accumulates and the soil does not dry out for a long time. Excess moisture will provoke the onset and development of fungal diseases. For the same reason, it is impossible to water Tagetes too often and abundantly.
5-7 days before transplanting, the earth must be carefully dug up and, if necessary, add additions:
- if the ground is dense and heavy, add humus or humus and a little sand;
- if the soil is acidic, scatter wood ash over the surface before digging;
- if the soil is scarce, fertilize the site with mineral complex fertilizers.
It is possible to plant seedlings of Marigold flowers in open ground in central Russia after June 5-7. In the southern regions - 2-3 weeks earlier. It is important that the night air temperature does not fall below + 5˚С.
Having chosen a sunny day, early in the morning or after lunch, you can start transplanting Marigolds into open ground. Water the seedlings well in the evening, but without fanaticism. With too dry or waterlogged soil, replanting flower seedlings is more difficult.
Planting holes should be made at a distance of 10 cm to 50 cm. Such a big difference is due to the peculiarities of different varieties of Tagetes. Low-growing varieties need to be planted closer to each other, but tall ones, on the contrary, farther away.
With thickened plantings, the flowers will have to fight for nutrients and "a place in the sun", which will immediately affect flowering. Moreover, the most common cause of fungal diseases is non-compliance with the recommended planting scheme.
Transplanting flowers in Marigolds is not a troublesome business, and it will not take much of your time and effort:
- pour some warm water into the hole;
- place a sprout in it;
- fill the voids with soil and lightly compact the earth at the base.
Marigolds calmly tolerate the transplant and quickly start to grow. In just a couple of days, you will see that the flowers have begun and began to transform.
Marigolds grown from seeds do not require much attention to themselves. All maintenance work is reduced to performing standard activities - weeding, loosening and watering.
Water the flowers sparingly. The Tagetes are calm about mild drought. Therefore, do not overfill them with water. The best indicator that a flower garden needs watering is the condition of the soil. If the ground is dry at a depth of 1-1.5 cm, then the Marigolds need watering.
Marigold flowers do not need mandatory mulching. But in a rainy summer, in order not to provoke rotting of plants, it is undesirable to mulch the beds with flowers.
Marigolds also do not feel much need for feeding. Flowers are fertilized only in two cases - with sufficient scarcity of soil or for lush flowering. And in fact, and in another case, it is necessary to feed Chornobrivtsi only before the first buds appear on the plants and no more than 2 times.
Marigolds respond very well to watering with herbal tea. Weeds such as dandelion and nettle are fermented in a barrel of water for 2-3 weeks. This solution can be watered once a week.
Tall varieties of Tagetes will need support.
Diseases and pests
In general, Marigold flowers are highly resistant to many diseases and pests. Moreover, they are often planted between vegetable beds, because flowers scare away pests with their aroma.
Important! You can not take tinctures and dishes that include Tagetes, pregnant women and nursing mothers, as well as people with individual intolerance.
But even these unpretentious plants have their enemies.
Young seedlings of Marigold flowers are a favorite delicacy of naked slugs. There are the following pest control methods:
- if naked slugs are frequent guests in your beds, immediately after planting, sprinkle the soil around the flowers with wood ash;
- you can use granules containing iron phosphate instead of ash. This substance is safe for plants, but slugs do not like it very much. Recommended consumption - 5 g of granules per 1 m²;
- bait traps help well in the fight against slugs. You can make traps yourself, or you can purchase them in specialized stores.
A hot, dry summer is the first reason for the appearance of a spider mite on the flowers of Marigolds. To get rid of this pest, you will have to resort to insecticides or folk remedies: infusions of bitter pepper, garlic, onions.
The most common diseases of Marigold flowers are black leg and root rot. The causes of diseases can be as follows:
- too wet soil condition for a long time;
- thickened plantings;
- dense earth crust.
In both cases, you need to stop watering for a while. Loosening will also help you heal Chornobrivtsi. At an early stage of the disease, flowers can be saved by transplanting them to a new location.
If the plant cannot be saved, it is better to remove it in order to prevent the spread of putrefactive diseases.
Growing Marigolds from seeds is not particularly difficult. Subject to the recommended rules of agricultural technology, these flowers will delight you with long, uninterrupted and exuberant flowering for several months. In addition to aesthetic pleasure, you will receive a ready-made "first aid kit" and spice. Undoubtedly, there is always a place for such a beautiful and versatile flower on any garden plot.