Before you get a few hives and open your own apiary, you need to study beekeeping for beginners - where to start and how to develop your business. In addition, you need to pass a test for allergic reactions to bee stings. If he shows a positive result, it is better to immediately abandon this activity. For people who do not have health problems, we offer a step-by-step instruction “Beekeeping for dummies”.
Where to begin
Before you do beekeeping, you need to learn a few important rules:
- If you want to get high-quality bee honey, you need to position the apiary as far as possible from the city and busy roads.
- When dealing with the apiary, do not forget to provide a separate room for storing inventory and finished products.
- At first, you need to read specialized literature and watch videos for beginners. This will help you understand the behavior of bees and the features of seasonal work in the apiary.
Many novice beekeepers who want to open an apiary from scratch often wonder if bee breeding can be combined with their main job. It is possible, but it must be borne in mind that proper beekeeping involves the timely implementation of constant work. You will have to spend 20-22 hours for the entire season to care for one bee colony.
If you start beekeeping from scratch, you need to consider that it is difficult to complete all the necessary work in the apiary on weekends only. The timing of certain work depends largely on the needs of the bee family, for example, in order to avoid the departure of swarms, it is necessary to expand the nests. This can only be done in spring.
First of all, gain experience. In almost every city, you can find special courses on beekeeping for beginners, where you can learn theoretical knowledge about bees. Ask what material is most read by beginners, carefully study the relevant literature. To gain practical skills, you need to work for some time under the guidance of experienced beekeepers.
Arrangement of apiary
Now let's figure out how to equip an apiary for beginners and where to start. The first thing to do is to choose a suitable place. To make the bees comfortable, you need to set the hives in summers to the east. When developing a plan for the apiary, do not forget to take into account that it must be protected by a high fence or green spaces. If you place the hives in a lowland or any other damp place, the bees will fall ill and die. Try to choose a place for an apiary near honey plants from which bees will collect pollen.
After you finish arranging the apiary, you need to buy bees. For a novice beekeeper, at first three bee families of peace-loving breeds, such as Transcarpathian or Central Russian, are enough. To insects easily endured a change of scenery, it is advisable to transport them in the dark. After you settle the bees in a new hive, be sure to feed them with sugar syrup.
The most important thing is preparing the bees for wintering. It is advisable to transfer the hive to a closed room for the winter. In this case, it is necessary to provide the bees with complete peace and a certain temperature regime. If you create favorable conditions, the insects will tolerate the winter well and do not require much nutrition. For wintering on the street, you need to additionally insulate the hives. After a certain time, insects will begin to multiply. A separate swarm stands out from each bee colony, which needs to be relocated to a new hive. Thus, starting from small, in a few years you will be able to turn a small apiary into a large beekeeping complex.
If you decide to start beekeeping on a large scale, it is better to immediately purchase multihull hives that are used by experienced beekeepers. To bees easily survived the winter, you need to prepare an omshanyk. This is a special room with good ventilation, which maintains optimal temperature conditions. In order to scare away the rodents from the omshanyk, they fumigate it with sulfur vapor, after which beehives are introduced for the winter.
Some beekeepers make hives with their own hands to save a little. To do this, you can use pine and any soft hardwood, except aspen. It is advisable to equip a small carpentry workshop in the apiary, in which you can make do-it-yourself frames for hives and other details. It will be useful to any novice beekeeper, and where to start work in the workshop is up to you.
There are beekeepers who go to different tricks to facilitate their work. For example, they use cassette beekeeping. To do this, the hive compartments are arranged like drawers in a chest of drawers. In one cartridge 10 frames can be installed. In addition, each bee family is located separately. To increase the amount of honey, you can put in the beehive separation lattice. They do not allow the uterus to go into the comb and separate the honey extensions from the brood. As you can see, building your own apiary is a complex, but at the same time fascinating task that anyone, even an inexperienced person, can handle. If you want to quickly master beekeeping for beginners, you need to read as much as possible thematic literature, which describes new technologies.
Beekeeping for beginners
In order not to encounter problems in the future, you need to learn all the secrets of beekeeping in advance. What do you need to know?
- Features of the selection and purchase of bee families.
- The temperature regime in the hive.
- Signs of healthy bees.
- Symptoms of diseases and causes of weakening of bee colonies.
- How to plant a new uterus instead of a dead one.
- How to catch a swarm that has flown away.
In the process of activity, many questions may arise. You will find answers to them in the specialized literature. It must be remembered that the bees will not forgive you the mistakes made in the care. If you doubt your own abilities, seek the help of experienced beekeepers who will help establish a workflow.
How to avoid bee stings? You should be aware that bees can sting only in special cases, because after this the insect dies. During work in the apiary, you do not need to make sudden movements. The clothes of the beekeeper should be clean and light, without extraneous odors. On the head you need to wear a special hat with a net. With a bee sting, a person receives a portion of the healing poison. Bees rarely sting their master, because they recognize him by his characteristic features.
At the stage of formation, beehives and all the necessary tools are best bought in a specialized store. Carefully monitor the uterus and working bees. They must be strong and healthy. Do not refuse the help of experienced beekeepers. You can buy bees from them and rent the missing equipment.