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Autumn is not only a time of gathering a rich harvest, but also preparing a flower garden for the winter period. In almost any country house, lilacs certainly grow - a fairly unpretentious lush shrub, which, nevertheless, requires some care. About how to properly prepare the lilac for the winter, cut the bush, feed it - right now.
When to start preparing lilacs for winter
Preparation of lilacs for the winter period begins already in mid-August - it is necessary that after all the events the tree can stand alone for at least a month (and the month should be warm enough). In the southern regions of Russia, the term is shifted to September-October, in Siberia, on the contrary, by the beginning of August.
Since the lilacs are quite resistant to winter cold, it is enough to mulch just to protect the trunk circles. They are covered with dried leaves and peat with a minimum height of 10 cm.
In the case of standard trees, the entire area of the stem is completely wrapped in burlap. Repeat the procedure in the first 3 years after a bush transplant or pruning.
Schemes and technology for pruning lilacs in the fall for beginners
Despite the fact that the lilac bush grows well, the pruning scheme for both young and old trees is quite simple, so beginner gardeners will be quite able to handle this procedure.
Pruning an old lilac for rejuvenation
There are several ways to trim the bush, depending on what it is for. For example, in the case of fairly old bushes (which are more than 10 years old), pruning is done to rejuvenate. It allows you to solve two problems at once:
- Remove all old shoots so that they do not take water and nutrients from young branches.
- To give the bush a more attractive look - one that optimally fits into the design of the garden.
The technology of anti-aging pruning is as follows:
- First of all, you should remove all the old branches, which clearly cracked the bark or the trunk is bare - even if there are several shoots on them, it is better to sacrifice them so that the tree blooms lushly in the next season.
- Further, the pruning scheme depends on the desired shape of the bush. If you want to get a bush form, you need to leave 3-4 shoots that have grown on the sides (i.e. not directed towards the center).
- If you want to get a standard form, in which the crown is presented in the form of a magnificent ball, remove all side shoots in 1 season. And in the second pinch the top (to which the height of the stem is assumed).
- In subsequent seasons, it is necessary to constantly thin out the crown and remove all shoots that grow below - so that the trunk remains bare (this is the so-called zone of the stem).
How to prune herbs
Sanitary autumn pruning of lilacs
In order to maintain a healthy bush, prevention of lilac diseases and tree damage by pests, the so-called sanitary pruning is carried out. To do this, you can follow this technology:
- Immediately after flowering and in the fall, all semi-dried and old branches are removed, as well as shapeless shoots that spoil the view. They are completely removed - i.e. to the trunk.
- All crossed branches growing too close and competing with each other also prune.
- In the event that the lilac was originally vaccinated, the entire shoot should be removed every year.
Finally, purely for aesthetic purposes, in order to give the bush a truly beautiful shape, it is necessary to constantly carry out the so-called forming pruning. You can stick to the following technology:
- In season 1, you should remove all weak or damaged shoots that grow towards the main trunk - i.e. inside the tree. Also remove two branches located extremely close - it is better to leave one so that they do not interfere with each other.
- The next year they work with skeletal branches - their strong shoots growing to the middle of the tree are completely removed, and all other parts are shortened by about a third, cutting off the level of buds from which new branches will grow.
- In 3 and subsequent seasons they perform such a de-procedure - exactly until the moment when the crown becomes attractive: thick and evenly growing. Usually 2-3 seasons are enough.
- Then every year you just need to follow the shape of the bush, removing too sprouted shoots and old, dying.
The formation of the crown is carried out in those bushes that were planted at least 3 years ago. In the first 2 seasons, you can only do small clippings, pinching shoots that grow too intensively compared to the rest.
Lilac top dressing in the fall
Unlike many garden crops, lilacs should be fertilized in the fall. In this case, it is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of the location of its root system - almost completely it is in the upper soil layer. Therefore, fertilizers are applied exclusively to the surface of the earth, after which it is carefully dug up. Observe the following rules:
- Fertilizers begin to make not less than 25 cm indent from the root neck.
- The maximum diameter is slightly larger than the crown of the bush (maximum indent by 10 cm).
- The digging depth after applying the mortar or manure to the surface of the earth is the most important parameter. In order not to damage the roots, you should first dig up 5 cm, and moving away from the root neck (in diameter more than 40-50 cm), you can increase the depth by 2 times.
- The best fertilizer for lilacs, as for many garden crops, is rotten manure (cow and horse manure is suitable, you can take it in a mixed version).
- If this is not possible, make humus or compost. The amount of dry mixture is taken by weight from 15 to 30 kg. A specific value is determined by the size, age of the bush, as well as by the fertility of the soil - for chernozems 10-15 kg is enough even for an adult tree.
- Instead of humus or compost, a mixture consisting of mullein solution (5 parts water per 1 part mullein), bird droppings (1 part per 10 parts water) and slurry (8 parts per 1 part water) are also added. All components are mixed in one solution (in equal proportions), after which they are poured under the bush in an amount of 10-30 liters.
Fertilizing with mineral fertilizers is carried out in spring and summer. Those. for autumn top dressing, only organic fertilizers are selected.
Lilac Care Features
Autumn lilac transplant
Regardless of the variety of lilacs, the optimal period for its transplantation is August and the first half of September (before the onset of the first frost). Moreover, there are features in different regions of Russia:
- In the Central region, in the Volga region and in the North-West, it is optimal to transplant lilacs in the last decade of August.
- In the Stavropol Territory, Krasnodar Territory, Chernozemye, the Caucasus and the Crimea - the second half of October and even the beginning of November.
- In Siberia, the Urals and the Far East - mid-August or early September, if there is confidence that frost will not occur at least a month from the day of transplantation.
Transplantation rules are as follows:
- First of all, it should be noted that the soil for lilacs must be neutral or slightly alkaline. The shrub tolerates the acidic environment rather poorly, therefore, in such cases, dolomite flour or ash is added to the soil in an amount of 200-300 g per m2.
- It is better to choose a place slightly elevated, rather dry and open to the sun - the lilac loves light and does not like swampy soil.
- If the soil is black soil, it does not need additional fertilizers. But if the soil is quite poor, make 15-20 kg of compost or rotted manure (per 1 bush).
- It is advisable to plant seedlings together with a lump of land - then they will surely be able to quickly take root.
- Own bushes, which are separated from the uterine lilacs, are planted a little deeper than the place where the roots are located.
- If grafted seedlings are planted, then first of all you need to take into account the type of stock. Almost all cultural varieties are grafted on ordinary, Hungarian lilac or privet.
Technology of propagation of lilacs in autumn by cuttings
Cuttings of lilacs are one of the most common methods of bush propagation. Nevertheless, it requires compliance with several rules at once:
- First of all, you need to consider that the rooting period of the cuttings is quite long - at least 5 weeks. Therefore, selection occurs at the end of flowering or immediately after it.
- Lignified and even semi-lignified cuttings will not work - they do not take root. Therefore, you need to take only green layers, and it is from young branches.
- Better prune branches with 2-3 knots. The best option is those layering that depart from the middle parts of the main branch.
- All leaves are removed from the bottom node.
- Then a slice is made at an acute angle. It should come as close as possible to the place where the leaves were cut. At the same time, it is not worth cutting to the knot itself - such cuttings do not root.
- All other leaves need to be cut exactly in half.
- The upper node is completely cut off along with the leaves - a regular cut is made perpendicular to the handle.
- Next, the cuttings must be immediately placed in a solution of the root stimulant and left overnight.
- Then the shoot is completely washed under running water and planted in a semi-shaded place - either in a greenhouse or on ordinary soil, but in this case the cuttings should be covered with 5-liter cut-off bottles.
- For the landing hole, a mixture of sand and peat taken in equal mass quantities is selected.
- In the depth of the pit, it is dug up no more than 20 cm. A stalk is planted, filled with a mixture. A 5-centimeter layer of sand is poured over the top.
- The pit is treated with a solution of any fungicide and carefully watered after a few hours.
- Next, the whole cuttings are closed with polyethylene (or you can close each shoot with a bottle).
- Subsequently, you need to ensure that the sand always remains saturated with moisture, and also once every 7 days to spray the shoots with a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
- It is also necessary to constantly ventilate the cuticle, and it can be completely opened after 6 weeks - then almost all shoots should form roots.
How does lilac breed?
Cuttings can be left for the winter, but if they managed to take root by the beginning of autumn, they should be transplanted to a separate bed for growing. Compost or humus is added to the soil. If the soil is acidic, it is better to add ash or dolomite flour at the rate of 200-300 g per 1 m2. You can transplant to the main place in the spring.
Thus, lilacs need basic care precisely at the end of summer - the beginning of autumn. If you make some effort this season, the bush will delight with its fragrant, beautiful flowers all next summer.