A basket of boletus mushrooms is the dream of any mushroom picker, it's not for nothing that they are called kings among forest fruits. This species is not only beautiful and tasty, but also very healthy. There are many ways to dry porcini mushrooms at home.
Preparing porcini mushrooms for drying
Unlike lamellar species, such as russula, volushki and milk mushrooms, boletus and other noble representatives do not wash before drying. They are able to quickly absorb large amounts of moisture, especially in a tubular layer at the bottom of the cap. This will make the further procurement process very difficult.
Are porcini mushrooms washed before drying
Before drying porcini mushrooms, they must be cleaned of dirt. It is categorically impossible to wash, therefore, the fruit bodies are carefully cleaned with a knife, the lower part is removed, if they were not cut off, but torn out entirely, they are checked for worminess. Then the boletus is wiped with a slightly damp cotton cloth, cleaning it from earth, sand, needles, moss and dried leaves. You do not need to soak the rag too much.
Advice! Instead of a cloth, you can take a well-wrung out dishwashing sponge and wipe the raw material with its foam-rubber side.
How to cut porcini mushrooms for drying
Instances of small sizes are sometimes dried whole, large ones are crushed in several ways:
How to dry a porcini mushroom at home
There are several ways to dry porcini mushrooms at home. It will take 5-7 days to harvest dried boletus in the traditional way, but if you use modern devices, the time will be reduced to several hours.
How to dry porcini mushrooms in the oven
Drying porcini mushrooms in an electric oven is easy, especially if it is equipped with a timer. For this, the cut product is placed in one layer on a metal grid or baking sheets covered with parchment paper. For more even and better drying, the boletus slices should not touch each other.
Baking trays or racks are placed in an oven preheated to 50 ° C, the door is left ajar for better air circulation. If the porcini mushrooms are dried correctly, they do not release droplets of liquid through the pores, but only slowly wither. Dew on the surface of the fruit indicates that it is overheated. If this is detected, the temperature in the oven is gradually reduced.
After an hour and a half of drying, the oven is heated to 70-80 ° C. In this temperature regime, the product is dried for two hours. The final step is drying at 55 ° C. The duration depends on the size of the slices and the degree of moisture saturation of the pulp. The process can take from 6-8 hours to a day. To get high-quality dried porcini mushrooms in the oven, in the process they need to be regularly turned over, and the baking sheets (grates) must be changed.
You can dry porcini mushrooms at home using a gas stove with an oven. The process is similar to manipulating an electric stove, however, constant ventilation must be ensured in the kitchen, since the combustion products of household gas, coupled with a mushroom smell, can cause headaches, nausea or dizziness. The hood must work at full capacity, and the vent or window must be kept open.
Warning! During drying, you need to restrict access to the kitchen for small children.
How to dry porcini mushroom in a dryer
At the moment there are many companies that produce special dryers. They can also be used to prepare products at home such as:
The main advantage of the dryer is its autonomy. The hostess does not need to waste time to make supplies for the winter, just set the desired mode on the device and wait until the end of processing. Modern devices are environmentally friendly, last a long time, rarely break down and consume little electricity. If you study the attached instructions, there will be no difficulties in using the dryer for porcini mushrooms.
Advice! Whole and finely chopped specimens must be dried separately.
In addition to the classic convection-type appliances, in which boletus mushrooms are dried under the action of heated air circulation, alternative options are also used. One of the popular devices is the gas dryer, which is a four-leg pallet or mesh structure that is installed above the stove. This method is imperfect, it is rarely used.
A wood-fired dryer can be considered an economical and practical option. It does not consume electricity and dries up porcini mushrooms by burning wood. It is a purely mechanical device with no electronics. In the process, it is necessary to regularly add firewood and monitor the intensity of the flame. The method is good for large volumes, up to 60 kg of boletus can be dried per day. Such wood-burning stove-dryers are often used on an industrial scale and in home gardens.
Every year more and more housewives prefer infrared dryers. Under the influence of these rays, moisture from the fruit bodies actively evaporates, and dense tissues remain intact. The product retains up to 80% of useful substances, the taste is practically not lost, while all pathogenic microorganisms are destroyed. The infrared dryer works at 50 ° C, the pieces are processed better and do not get hard.
How to dry porcini mushrooms on a string
One of the oldest home drying methods is the use of thread. The product is strung on synthetic thread, fishing line or thin needles so that adjacent pieces do not touch each other. Mushroom garlands are placed in a warm, well-ventilated area, for example:
- over the stove;
- in the attic of a private house;
- outdoors in hot and dry weather.
To protect such household items from flies and other insects, they are covered with a layer of gauze. The natural drying period at home is 5-7 days.
How to dry porcini mushrooms in the microwave
A microwave oven is often used to dry forest products at home. With this method, a large amount of moisture will inevitably be released from the fruit bodies. Pieces of the same size are evenly distributed on a glass plate and incubated for about 20 minutes at a power of 100-200 W and a temperature of 180 ° C. Mushroom juice is periodically drained. Next, let it cool by opening the microwave door. The cycle is repeated 3-4 times until ready.
Drying porcini mushrooms at home using a microwave is one of the fastest ways and this is its main advantage. The downside is the need for constant monitoring of the device and fruits.
Why are dried porcini mushrooms bitter
It can be very annoying when, after so much effort during the drying process, porcini mushrooms begin to taste bitter during cooking. This can happen for several reasons:
- Among the real boletus, during the collection, a false one was caught. In most cases, mushroom pickers confuse the white species with the bile fungus (Tylopilus felleus). Its main difference is the pinkish color of the tubular layer in the lower part of the cap, the rapidly turning pink pulp on the cut and a pronounced bitter taste even with a light touch with the tongue. In the highly specialized literature on mycology, there is conflicting information about the edibility of this species. In some sources, it is described as inedible due to its specific taste. In others, it is characterized as releasing toxins and detrimental to the liver. If the mushroom raw material is very bitter, it is better to throw it away, like the entire batch of dried porcini mushrooms, health is more expensive.
- The collection and preparation took place along with other species that have a bitter taste. These are milkmen, value, violin, milk mushrooms. Experienced chefs recommend cooking porcini mushrooms separately from others so as not to lose their unique aroma.
- Bitterness can be felt when the product is damaged due to improper storage conditions. Dry homemade products should not be in a damp, cold room, as they can quickly become moldy.
How to store dried porcini mushrooms
The safety of dry boletus directly depends on the container chosen. For storage at home, ceramic or glass containers with a tight lid are most often used. Banks are pre-washed, sterilized and dried. The main disadvantage of this method is the possibility of mold or decay if the boletus were not dried well enough.
If you store porcini mushrooms in cloth bags or paper bags, mold will not start. However, there is a possibility of pests entering.
The shelf life of dried porcini mushrooms can be increased by using vacuum containers. This is the most effective method for storing boletus at home. Containers with a vacuum pump are an expensive pleasure, but they will not be superfluous for avid mushroom pickers and zealous housewives.
Important! It is recommended to regularly check the dried boletus for the presence of mold.
In addition to a suitable container, you need to choose the right place. The room where dry boletus is stored must meet the following criteria:
- good ventilation;
- low humidity;
- lack of sunlight.
In a private house, porcini mushrooms can be stored in a warm attic or pantry. In an apartment, one of the kitchen cabinets is suitable, located close to the stove or next to the heater. If for some reason the product is damp, it can be dried again using one of the methods listed above.
How much dried porcini mushrooms are stored
Dried porcini mushrooms can retain nutritional value and taste throughout the year. Having created the right conditions, dry boletus can be eaten for three years.
Advice! Overdried pieces can be ground in a mortar or coffee grinder and used as a fragrant mushroom seasoning.
Thanks to modern technologies, drying porcini mushrooms at home has become easy. Drying is the oldest method of storage for future use, in which the maximum amount of protein is retained in boletus.
Reviews of dried porcini mushrooms
Ilinskaya Inna Andreevna, 38 years old, Moscow
I myself dry porcini mushrooms in an electric dryer and I don't know grief. And as a child, I saw how their grandmother dried, hanging them on threads behind the stove. If they collected a lot of boletus, they were dried in a Russian stove on huge baking sheets covered with straw. The most delicious and rich soup is made from dry porcini mushrooms.
Zakharova Inessa Pavlovna, 54 years old, s. Parfenevo, Kostroma region
There are such generous forests in the Kostroma region that there has never been a year when we picked porcini mushrooms. Previously, in the village they dried in a stove, but in the conditions of an apartment, my salvation is a stove. Cut into thin slices and lay out on baking sheets covered with foil. In the process, you must often interfere, otherwise the porcini mushrooms will hopelessly stick. Recently I tried to use a silicone sheet for baking - I also liked it. If some pieces do not dry out during the night, I bring them to condition on the windowsill, and then in rag or paper bags and into a dry, dark place.