Growing cucumbers in the Urals in a greenhouse is complicated by the limited favorable growing season of plants. Frosts sometimes persist until the onset of 1-2 ten days of June. They may start again at the end of August. To obtain an earlier harvest of cucumbers in the Ural climate, many summer residents grow crops not through sowing seeds, but through planting seedlings. Those years that are favorable for obtaining a good harvest of cucumbers in the Urals are about 3 times in 10 years.
What varieties of cucumbers are suitable for growing in the Urals
The climate of the Urals has its own characteristics that complicate the process of growing crops. Among the various varieties of cucumber seeds, you can choose the most suitable for growing in the Urals. You should not be limited to one variety, therefore, it is best to opt for 4-5 varieties. For example, the Nezhenskie cucumber variety is ideal for salads and pickles, which can be harvested until autumn. You can choose early and mid-season cucumber varieties. The following types of hybrid varieties are ideal for growing in the Urals:
- Voyage F1 is an early ripening variety of cucumbers that ripens in 45 days in a greenhouse, does not require pollination, and tolerates temperature changes normally.
- Arina F1 is a cold-resistant cucumber hybrid that is high-yielding and resistant to various plant diseases.
- Cupid F1 is an early ripening variety that tolerates high and low temperatures well, which is planted by seeds or seedlings in open ground, full ripening of fruits can be expected in 40-45 days.
- Moscow evenings F1 is an early ripening variety suitable for growing in a greenhouse or in the open field, grows well in the shade, is resistant to such types of diseases as powdery mildew, olive spot, etc.
Voyage F1 and Arina F1 varieties are suitable only for fresh consumption, and hybrids F1 and Amur F1 near Moscow are also suitable for salting. It is not difficult to make the right choice among the variety of varieties of cucumbers for cultivation in the harsh Ural climate, so the result should meet all expectations. To achieve this result, you will need to provide proper care for the cucumbers.
Sowing seeds in the Middle Urals
Growing cucumbers in a greenhouse using seedlings leads to a faster harvest. It is necessary to plant cucumbers with seeds within a time frame depending on the type of crop shelter used. It should be ideal for caring for plants in the Middle Urals. Growing cucumber seedlings can be carried out in special bags or pots.
This type of culture does not tolerate picking well, and damage to the roots of seedlings can lead to a lag in the development of an adult plant by 10-15 days.
The development of cucumbers, which are planted in open ground with seedlings, occurs quite quickly, 20-25 days earlier. Seeds for seedlings are first heated by flooding with hot water. They must be kept in a thermos for two hours, and then pickled by placing them in a dark solution of potassium permanganate for half an hour.
After the performed procedures, the cucumber seeds will need to be soaked in warm water, the temperature of which should not be higher than 40 ° C. It is necessary to wait 10-12 hours until the seeds are ready. Soak the seeds until they are completely swollen to speed up the emergence of seedlings. This method of pre-sowing seed preparation is the easiest and most affordable. Water must be poured in 2 doses, which will ensure the best absorption of liquid into the seeds, it changes every 4 hours. You can use a plate to place seeds on it. A small gauze bag is also suitable for soaking them, which should be lowered into a container of water.
An effective and proven method of soaking seeds by preparing an infusion of wood ash. Taking it in the amount of 2 tbsp. l., pour micronutrient fertilizer into a container of 1 liter. Next, warm water is poured into it and the contents are infused for two days. The solution should be stirred periodically. After that, the infusion should be carefully drained and the seeds placed in a gauze bag should be immersed in it for 4-5 hours.
Germinating cucumber seeds
Before sowing cucumbers, the soaked seeds are germinated by spreading them on a damp cloth in a thin layer. The room temperature should be 15-25 ° C. Cover the top layer of seeds with a damp cloth. With this approach, germination can be accelerated by 5-7 days. The germination period for cucumber seeds is 1-3 days.
Keeping the humidity at an optimal level, make sure that the water does not evaporate. To do this, the cloth with seeds can be placed in a plastic bag or covered with glass. To prevent it from being too wet, the amount of water must be appropriate. With an excess of moisture, the process of oxygen supply, which is necessary for the normal germination of cucumber seeds, becomes difficult. Air can only be ensured by regularly turning the seeds on the cloth.
It is necessary to complete germination when most of the seeds already have white sprouts. When they have already appeared, the development of the root of the plant begins at the same time. Therefore, it is important not to miss the moment of pecking cucumbers from seeds. If the fragile root that appears when sowing turns out to be damaged, then it will be impossible to get a plant from it.
Seeds should be planted in moist, warm and cultivated soil. If you had to delay the sowing of seeds, then after germination they should be kept in the refrigerator at a temperature of 3-4 ° C.
Growing cucumber seedlings
For normal growth of cucumber seedlings, all containers with future cucumbers should be placed on the windowsill from the sunny side, and, if necessary, add an additional source of lighting. By setting the optimum temperature, you can get the first true leaf from the seedlings 5 - 6 days after planting the seeds. The appearance of the second leaf can be expected 8-10 days after the first. It is possible to ensure the rapid growth of seedlings only through proper soil care, since the plants will receive full development only under conditions of normal soil air permeability.
Before planting seedlings in the ground, it should be fed 2 times with UKT-1 complex fertilizer. The first feeding is carried out in the phase of the first leaf at the rate of 1 glass of solution for 4-5 plants. The second should be carried out 3-4 days before planting in the ground with the same composition at the rate of 1 glass for 2-3 plants. If you do not water the seedlings before feeding, then after using the fertilizer solution, cucumber roots may burn.
When feeding plants, you need to monitor their condition. Each feeding of seedlings should be finished by watering cucumbers with warm water with potassium permanganate. This allows the fertilizer to be flushed off the leaves, preventing the appearance of blackleg. It is quite effective to feed seedlings with milk water, which includes milk and water - 200 g and 1 liter, respectively. The mixture is consumed at the rate of 1 glass for 5 plants in the first leaf phase, and for 3 plants in the second phase.
Planting seedlings in the ground
In the Urals, cucumbers are planted in the ground in the form of seedlings in film greenhouses on May 20 without using biofuel.
Planting of plants in the ground without biofuel in a glass greenhouse is carried out on May 5. Growing cucumbers in the form of seedlings in a glass greenhouse in the Urals usually begins on April 25, if there is manure in the soil. A film greenhouse with biofuel in the form of manure, better than horse manure, is suitable for planting cucumber seedlings in the Urals from May 1.
Having decided when to plant cucumbers in the greenhouse, you need to properly prepare the seedlings for planting in open ground. Plants aged 30 days should have about 4-5 leaves. If you start planting plants in the soil that were not prepared for sunlight, then they can immediately die. Two weeks before disembarkation, you need to start taking out the boxes of cucumbers in the sun. At first, you should choose warm, windless days. You cannot keep the seedlings outside for a long time, and in the future, the procedure time can be gradually increased.
To install boxes with cucumber seedlings, choose a shaded area that is protected from drafts. Before planting plants, it is necessary to prevent infection of seedlings by treating cucumbers with solutions of Epin or Immunocytophyte. Before planting, the plants should be squat with wide, dark green leaves. The root system of future cucumbers must be strong.
Warning! Cucumbers in the greenhouse should not be planted after zucchini, pumpkin, melon or squash, as cucumber seedlings are too susceptible to various types of diseases.
You can plant cucumbers in the ground where tomatoes, eggplants, onions or cabbage were grown last year. Since these types of crops have other diseases, then after them the planting of cucumbers will be made with minimal risk.
You should not make the bed wider than 1.3 m, since you will have to plant cucumbers in 3 rows, which will complicate the care of plants in the middle row. You should not plant cucumbers in a draft. The bed should be well prepared and dug up, since light and loose compositions are preferable for cucumbers, rather than heavy and dense soil.