The homeland of sweet pepper is the tropical regions of America. It is not surprising that the vegetable, which is becoming more widespread and popular in Russia, belongs to the thermophilic crops. That is why it is extremely difficult to achieve full maturation of a plant in domestic conditions. Even the use of the most undemanding and cold-resistant varieties of pepper does not always allow you to get a good harvest. A logical and obvious way to solve the problem is to grow pepper in greenhouse film coatings.
Sweet pepper - a description of the vegetable and the benefits of it
The scientific description of the plant is quite simple - an annual vegetable crop that has many names, in particular, red pepper, vegetable pepper, paprika and others, with simple, single or collected leaves of green or dark green flowers, large flowers and fruits in the form of false hollow berries of bright colors (red, orange, yellow, brown and green).
What is so interesting, in addition to beautiful and bright, extremely attractive outwardly fruits, sweet pepper? The answer is simple - with a whole set of extremely useful qualities:
- high in vitamins and many other nutrients. Among vegetables, bell peppers are the absolute leader in terms of the amount of useful vitamin C contained in it, yielding in this indicator among all plants only to black currant and rose hips. In addition, it also contains the rare vitamin P, which has an extremely beneficial effect on the functioning of the heart and blood vessels of the human body. Some data from scientists show that regular consumption of pepper reduces the risk of stroke by almost half, or more precisely, by 46%. We should not forget about the presence of B vitamins, as well as potassium, iron, iodine and silicon, which are also extremely useful for the body;
- content of capsoicin. The substance deserves special mention for its original properties to help increase appetite, start and activate the digestion process. This substance is especially abundant in the distant congeners of red pepper - hot chili and black pepper. But even in the vegetable in question, the content of capsoicin is sufficient to recommend its use at the beginning of lunch or dinner;
- therapeutic and health-improving effect. Recent research by scientists has shown that substances contained in bell peppers significantly reduce the risk of cancer. These properties are especially high in green pepper. In addition, pepper can be recommended as a prophylaxis for various forms of neuralgia;
- taste qualities. In addition to the undoubted benefits that the use of pepper brings, one should not forget about the prosaic gastronomic pleasure of eating, delivered by a variety of dishes, which include the fruits of the plant.
The advantages of sweet pepper are not limited to the above list, but it is quite enough to understand the reasons for the popularity and widespread distribution of the vegetable culture.
Criteria for choosing a variety of sweet pepper
The heat-loving characteristic of sweet peppers makes it particularly attractive to grow in greenhouses. The most suitable conditions for this are provided by polycarbonate structures, in addition to reliability and the ability to maintain temperature, they have another additional advantage - the ability to scatter light, which has a beneficial effect on the maturation of the culture.
Growing in greenhouses allows you to plant peppers and get a harvest almost all year round. Based on this, the main criteria for choosing the varieties used are the following:
- ripening time of the hybrid or variety. It is important to take into account for the correct planning of sowing dates, since some varieties, when grown in polycarbonate greenhouses, successfully bear fruit in December and even January;
- the height and compactness of the bushes of the plant. Not a particularly relevant criterion for large greenhouses, nevertheless, it must be taken into account for proper planting and placement of a vegetable;
- the level of need for light. It can be quite different for different varieties, so you should pay attention to it, choosing it depending on the conditions of a particular region;
- the ability to resist disease. One of the most important properties of a pepper variety or hybrid. The prevalence of certain diseases or pests also depends on the growing region. This factor can seriously affect the yield of a vegetable, therefore it deserves special attention.
Common diseases and pests
Very often, gardeners, paying great attention to observing the temperature and humidity conditions for growing sweet peppers, pay less attention to disease prevention and pest control. This is an extremely wrong approach, as it can lead to the fact that all the work will be in vain.
The following diseases and pests that are extremely dangerous for pepper are most common in domestic conditions:
- top rot. A very unpleasant disease, which is usually caused by a systematic violation of the required feeding and humidity regime. Accordingly, in order to avoid the appearance of top rot, it is enough to fulfill the requirements for growing and caring for the crop;
- stolbur. An extremely unpleasant disease causing a decrease in the size of the leaves, their coarsening, and subsequent fall, thickening of the stem, and subsequently uneven coloration of the fruits, as well as their loss of taste. The most important property of this disease is that it is almost impossible to cure it. It is necessary to remove infected plants, preventing the further spread of the stolbur;
- altarniasis. The disease is accompanied by the appearance of black mold spots that cover the leaves, and then the fruits, spoiling not only the appearance, but also the taste. Diseased plants must be sprayed with a solution of a drug called Bordeaux liquid (100 g per bucket of ordinary water) or copper oxychloride solution (40 g per bucket of ordinary water);
- aphid. A well-known, but therefore no less dangerous pest. Its widespread distribution has led to the development of clear measures to combat it. But before that, it is necessary to detect the pest. Signs of aphids appear in the curling and drying of the leaves, as well as the appearance of a shiny and sticky substance on them. In addition, the pest can be detected visually on the back of the leaves. There are many methods of dealing with aphids, and their choice is the prerogative of the gardener.
After determining the criteria that are important for choosing a variety or hybrid of sweet pepper, you must go directly to their description.
Harvest varieties of peppers for growing in a greenhouse
A large number of varieties have been developed that are excellent for growing in greenhouses and capable of providing excellent yields.
The Apricot Favorite variety belongs to early maturing crops (100-105 days). Suitable for outdoor cultivation, but the highest yields can be achieved when planted in a greenhouse. The height of the bush, as a rule, does not exceed 0.5 meters. The fruits of the variety have the shape of a cone, are colored light green during the period of technical ripeness, during biological maturation they acquire an orange or apricot color.
The fruits are large enough, their weight often reaches 150 grams, and the wall thickness is 7 mm. The yield of the variety is ensured by ripening 15-20 fruits at the same time on each bush. Experts note the high resistance of the variety to most common diseases.
The Agapovsky sweet pepper variety, bred by domestic breeders at the end of the last century (more precisely, in 1995), belongs to early ripening crops that bear the first fruits in 99-110 days. The bush of the plant is compact, medium-sized, with a large number of large dark green leaves. The peppercorns of the variety have the shape of a smooth prism, rather large, with a characteristic weakly pronounced ribbing. The fruits reach a mass of 120 grams with a wall thickness of up to 7 mm. The crop yield is quite high - 9.5 -10.3 kg / kW. m.
An additional advantage of the variety is a high degree of resistance to many diseases and pests, in particular, the tobacco mosaic virus, top rot. The Agapovsky variety is valued not only for its fairly high yield, but also for the excellent taste of the fruit.
The F1 hybrid Kakadu is a mid-ripe hybrid, it begins to bear fruit approximately 130-135 days after the first shoots appear. The bushes of the plant are very tall (up to 1.5 meters high), have a spreading structure and a large number of leaves. The hybrid was bred specifically for growing in greenhouses, suitable for all types of conditions - film, glazed or polycarbonate. The fruits of the hybrid have a somewhat elongated shape in the form of an elongated cylinder. Their length often reaches 30 cm with a typical wall thickness of 6-8 mm. Due to their size, the peppercorns of the hybrid often weigh 0.5 kg.
The hybrid allows you to achieve yields of up to 3 kg from one bush. In addition, experts highly appreciate the taste of the hybrid, which is perfect for salads, pickling or other types of preservation.
Two varieties of hybrid F1 Cockatoo have been developed. Above we were talking about the most common, bright red. Because of him, he most likely got the name, as it is very similar to the beak of a famous parrot. But there is also a second variety - with yellow fruits. It is somewhat smaller in size (300-400 g), has a length of no more than 15 cm, and its taste is not inferior to the more well-known variety.
Hybrid Latino F1 refers to early maturing plants, you can start harvesting in 100-110 days. The main distinguishing feature of the variety is its high yield. With proper care, it can easily reach 16 kg / sq. m, and often surpasses this worthy indicator. The fruits of the hybrid have an original cuboid shape with dimensions of about 12 * 12 cm, a significant wall thickness (up to 1 cm) and a pronounced bright red color. The hybrid was bred specifically for growing in protected ground conditions, however, in the southern regions of the country it is often planted in open ground, although its yield is significantly reduced.
Another important advantage of the Latino F1 hybrid is its high resistance to some common diseases, in particular, the tobacco mosaic virus. However, it should be carefully protected from aphids and spider mites.
The variety belongs to early maturing, which means the first harvest is collected 100-110 days after the first shoots. The bush of the plant has an average height and spreading. The peppercorns are cone-shaped, rather small, weigh up to 100 g and have a wall thickness of up to 8 mm.
The main advantage of the Big Papa variety is its high and stable yield, achieved, among other things, by its good resistance to diseases and pests. In addition, the variety growers have appreciated its excellent taste. The fruits of the variety are very juicy, with a pronounced sweet aroma. They can be used in salads, when canning or freezing, as well as in a variety of types of culinary processing, perfectly demonstrating their qualities.
Hybrid Isabella F1 belongs to the mid-season, the first fruits gain technical ripeness after 120 days. The bush of the plant is tall, closed. The fruits of the hybrid are rather large in size, rarely exceed the mass of 160 grams, with a wall thickness of 8-10 mm. They have a prismatic shape and a characteristic bright red color.
According to the method of consumption, the hybrid is universal, since its fruits can be eaten both fresh and processed. They are also great for canning. The variety has a good yield, reaching 10 kg / sq. m. At the same time, the hybrid Isabella F1 is extremely undemanding to care and growing conditions, which makes the variety even more attractive.
Hybrid Denis F1 belongs to the ultra-early, allowing you to start harvesting after 85-90 days. Pepper bears fruit with rather large fruits, its weight reaches 400 g with a wall thickness of up to 9 mm. They measure approximately 18 * 10 cm and are cuboid. The bush of the hybrid plant is low, rarely its height exceeds 0.6-0.7 m.
The hybrid is intended for growing both outdoors and indoors, where it gives the highest yields. Resistant to tobacco mosaic virus. Most suitable for fresh consumption.
Hybrid Rhapsody F1 refers to early maturing, starting to bear fruit in 100-110 days. The bush of the plant is relatively low - 65-75 cm. The fruits of the hybrid are cone-shaped, reaching a length of 16 cm. As they ripen, the peppercorns change color from light green to yellow.
The main advantage of the hybrid is high productivity and stability of the crop, achieved by unpretentiousness in care and resistance to diseases and pests.
A wide variety of varieties and hybrids of sweet pepper, presented on the domestic market, allows any gardener to easily choose the variety that best meets his specific requirements. The result will be a bountiful harvest of healthy and tasty vegetables.