Peach Kievsky early belongs to the category of self-pollinated early varieties of early ripening. Among other varieties, this species is distinguished by high frost resistance and the ability to recover from frostbite.
Breeding history of the variety
The Kievsky early peach variety is the result of painstaking selection work by Soviet scientists, who were tasked with developing a new winter-hardy crop adapted to the conditions of the Russian climate. Research on the development of the variety was carried out at the Institute of Horticulture UAAS under the leadership of A.P. Rodionova, I.A. Sheremet, B.I. Shablovskaya.
The new species was obtained by crossing the varieties Gross Mignon and Kashchenko 208 in 1939 and since then has been considered the standard of frost resistance. In 1954 Kiev Early Peach was entered into the State Register of Plant Varieties of Ukraine.
Separately, there is a derivative subspecies of the Kievsky early variety - the Kievsky late peach.
Description of the peach variety Kievsky early
Peach Kievsky early is a medium-sized high-yielding variety that forms a spherical compact crown of medium density. The height of the tree reaches 4 m. Young trees actively form new shoots; in adult plants, shoot formation stabilizes over time.
The leaves of the Kievsky early variety are dark green, oblong, narrowed towards the end. The goblet flowers are bright pink.
Peach fruits are medium-sized - their weight varies from 80 to 100 g. The skin is thin and velvety to the touch, the flesh is juicy and tender. The description for the Kievskiy early variety emphasizes the unusually sweet taste of peaches.
The shape of the fruit is round, sometimes slightly flattened from the sides. The abdominal suture is pronounced. Skin color ranges from pale light yellow to cream with a raspberry blush.
The stone is of medium size, boat-shaped. It is not completely separated from the pulp.
Characteristics of the variety
Peach Kievsky early zoned for cultivation in the middle zone of the Russian Federation, however, a high degree of resistance to frost allows you to cultivate this variety also in the northern regions of the country.
Drought resistance, frost resistance
The variety is considered a model of winter hardiness - it is able to winter safely at temperatures down to -26-27 ° C. Moreover, even in case of frostbite, the tree can not be uprooted, as it quickly recovers from damage. As a rule, the next year the peach is ready to bear fruit.
The early Kiev peach does not tolerate drought well, which is confirmed by numerous reviews.
Does the variety need pollinators
This species belongs to self-fertile varieties, but it is hardly possible to get a bountiful harvest without pollinators. The following peach varieties are suitable for pollination:
- May Flower;
- Favorite of Moretini;
Productivity and fruiting
Peach blossom time is in late April - early May. The variety blooms for 10-12 days. In mid-July, the fruits begin to ripen.
Trees enter the fruiting period in the 3rd year after planting in open ground. The yield of the variety is quite high - from one plant with good care, from 30 to 45 kg of peaches are harvested.
Scope of the fruit
The dense skin of the fruit determines the good transportability of the variety. Peaches safely carry long-distance transportation, do not wrinkle in a container. The shelf life of fruits is on average 5-7 days.
Peaches are consumed fresh. Also, jam and jam are made from them, compote is prepared. Part of the crop is used for the production of candied fruits and marmalade.
Disease and pest resistance
Early Kiev peach is immune to most infectious diseases, but it often suffers from curly leaves. However, timely prevention of trees minimizes the risk of infection.
Of the pests dangerous for the variety, aphids and fruit moths are especially distinguished.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
The advantages of the variety include:
- high winter hardiness;
- the ability to recover from frostbite;
- early maturity;
- high productivity;
- sweet taste of fruits;
- compactness of the crown, facilitating harvesting;
- resistance to powdery mildew and clasterosporium disease.
The list of disadvantages of the variety is more modest:
- vulnerability to curly leaves;
- drought intolerance;
- poor separation of the bone from the pulp.
Peach planting rules
Early Kievsky peach develops well on almost all types of soil, but at the same time it is quite sensitive to the degree of illumination and wind.
Saplings do not have the same winter hardiness as adult trees, and take root better in spring. The optimal planting time is mid-April, but preparations for planting trees begin in the fall.
Choosing the right place
The only limitation on the quality of the soil when choosing a place for planting this variety is the boggy soil. Groundwater must flow at a depth of at least 1.5 m.
The illumination of the site is of no less importance. Peach trees should not lack the sun.
Important! Young seedlings need protection from strong winds.
Selection and preparation of planting material
When buying seedlings, you should pay attention to the presence of cracks, spots and dried areas on the trunk and shoots. In addition, healthy plants should have a well-developed root system - the minimum root length is 30 cm.
Before digging holes for planting peach trees, it is necessary to properly prepare the soil of the site. The soil is dug up, cleaned of weeds and dry leaves, and then abundantly moistened.
As a fertilizer for saturating the earth, a mixture is used, which includes the following components:
- potassium chloride - 100 g;
- humus - 12-15 kg;
- superphosphate - 150-200 g;
- ash - 300-400 g.
This amount is enough to fertilize 1 m2 land.
In 15-20 days after fertilizing the site, you can start planting trees. The landing procedure is as follows:
- Planting holes are dug with parameters 40x40x40, while the topsoil is mixed with fertilizers, which can be peat or humus.
- The bottom of the hole is covered with drainage from gravel or broken brick. The layer thickness should not exceed 10 cm.
- A peg with a diameter of 5 cm and a height of at least 1.5 m is driven into the middle of the pit.
- A mound of soil mixture is poured over the drainage, on which the seedling is installed. It must be carefully tied to the post.
- The roots of the plant are evenly distributed over the hill, after which they are sprinkled with earth, tamped and watered (20-30 liters of water will be enough).
- The planting procedure is completed by mulching with a mixture of peat and sawdust. The optimal mulch layer is 5 cm.
Important! Excessive deepening of the seedling is fraught with necrosis of the trunk bark at the very ground. The neck of the plant should be above the soil level.
Peach follow-up care
Peach is considered a rather capricious crop, the care of which is quite painstaking, but this does not apply to the Kievsky variety. The prerequisites for the normal development of a tree are only regular watering and prevention against diseases.
Early Kiev peach is watered every 7-10 days, while each bush takes 20-40 liters of water. Watering is especially important during the ripening period.
Pruning trees is optional, but as the crown thickens, removing excess shoots helps to provide the fruit with enough light.
Subject to removal:
- shriveled or frostbitten shoots;
- improperly growing, twisted branches;
- branches that shade the fruit too much.
Important! Places of cuts must be treated with garden varnish in order to avoid damage by fungal infections.
More details about the features of the cropping procedure are described in the video:
In northern regions with harsh winters, peach trees are prepared for wintering. Preparatory measures include the following steps:
- The near-trunk circle is abundantly watered and mulched with a mixture of humus and sawdust.
- The upper branches and bole are covered with lime and clay as protection against pests.
- After whitewashing, the trees are covered with spruce branches.
Important! The tree begins to prepare for wintering only when it sheds most of its foliage.
Diseases and pests, methods of control and prevention
The Kievsky early peach variety is immune to most fungal diseases, but it is vulnerable to curly leaves. Preventive measures include treating trees with industrial chemicals or homemade solutions.
The onset of the disease is evidenced by the coarsening of leaf plates, buds and young shoots. Subsequently, the leaves curl and turn red.
The photo below shows a peach of the Kievsky early variety, affected by curly leaves.
As a preventive measure, peach is treated in the spring with Skor in a proportion of 2 ml per bucket of water. Processing is done 2 times after 20 days.
In the event that the disease has already struck the plants, they must be sprayed with a solution of Bordeaux liquid.
Early Kievsky peach is well adapted to the conditions of the Russian climate and is resistant to frost, thanks to which the variety is still popular among gardeners, despite the competition from younger species. In addition, the popularity of the variety was gained by its early maturity and relative unpretentiousness.
Kuznetsov Anatoly Mikhailovich, 48 years old, Tambov
Last year I harvested the first crop of this variety of peaches. The fruits are good and tasty. Slightly similar in appearance to apricots. From the pros: early and unpretentious variety. Friends praise the taste of peaches, but personally I don't see anything special in it. Although the pulp is juicy even in unripe fruits, which is a plus. And they ripen earlier than other varieties. Another minus - severe frosts destroyed one tree. Maybe he hid badly, I don't know. Or maybe all these stories about amazing winter hardiness are nothing more than a myth.
Chokhlenko Alla Sergeevna, 34 years old, Saratov
I liked the description of the Kievsky early variety, and in the photo the peaches looked quite appetizing. I bought it, planted it. As a result, I was not disappointed. Slightly annoying that it is difficult to separate the pits from the pulp, but the peach flavor outweighs that disadvantage. It is moderately sweet, without sugary notes, and the pulp is soft and juicy. Children like it very much.
Olga Belousova, 50 years old, Penza
No complaints about the variety, everything is as in the description - Kievsky peach is indeed winter-hardy, last year it calmly survived severe frosts. All you need to do is cover the tree properly. My friend was too lazy, now she regrets. Although the peach has already recovered.