Large chrysanthemums are perennials from the Asteraceae family, or Asteraceae. Their homeland is China. In the language of this country, they are called Chu Hua, which means "gathered together." There are 29 varieties of large-flowered chrysanthemums in the world. They are appreciated for their spectacular appearance in flower beds and when cut. In addition, the lush blossoms bloom during the period when most flowers wither.
Description of large-flowered chrysanthemums
Large chrysanthemums do not grow in the wild. They were bred by breeders, crossing varieties of Japanese and Chinese origin. These are perennial plants with a branched or thickened root system, strong erect stems. They grow up to 100 cm in height.
Shoots in various varieties are bare or pubescent, branch well. The leaves are arranged alternately, painted in a dark green or gray-green hue. The shape and size differ depending on the variety.
Inflorescences of large chrysanthemums are basket-shaped, consisting of a large number of reed and tubular flowers. One can be assembled up to 1000 pieces. The diameter of the baskets reaches 20 cm. The buds can be double or simple.
The culture is frost-resistant. However, buds and inflorescences are damaged and die if the air temperature drops to 0 degrees. Large chrysanthemums feel comfortable on fertile and sandy loam soils, with sufficient light and moisture.
Varieties of large-flowered chrysanthemums
Breeders have bred a large number of varieties. Some popular names include:
- Valentina Tereshkova. The variety was obtained on the Crimean Peninsula. It is distinguished by lush inflorescences, the size of which reaches 14 cm, and the color varies from red-crimson on the upper petals to light pink on the lower ones. Flowering begins in September. The height of the bushes is up to 70 cm.
- Gazelle. Large chrysanthemums with double white buds that bloom at the end of summer and last until frost. Inflorescences-baskets reach 14 cm in diameter. Flowers of this variety need to be tied to supports.
- Tom Pierce. A characteristic feature is the unusual, eye-catching yellow-red color of the petals. The variety is good for making bouquets. The height of the bushes is up to 60 cm. Plants prefer open spaces warmed by the sun's rays.
- Zembla. Terry chrysanthemums, which grow in the open field up to 90 cm, and as a pot culture - up to 30 cm. The inflorescences have large petals, during the formation of buds they exude a pleasant honey aroma. Up to 3 flowers appear on each branch.
- Shamrock. A spherical variety with a stem height of about 70 cm. The color of the buds is greenish. The flowers are fragrant, keep well when cut. They can stand in a vase for 3 weeks.
Planting and caring for large-flowered chrysanthemums
Large chrysanthemums prefer moderate air temperatures, not higher than +25 degrees. Buds can be formed at rates from +11 and above. These are short-day plants. They bloom during those times of the year when the night lasts longer than the day. But to build up green mass, a culture needs at least 14 hours of daylight. In the central regions of Russia, it comes in April.
For active growth and flowering, large chrysanthemums need to comply with the following conditions:
- good lighting;
- air circulation;
- drainage layer;
- complete darkness at night.
Selection and preparation of the landing site
The culture does not like stagnant water and shade. The place for growing large-flowered chrysanthemums in the open field should be located on a hill, well-lit by the sun's rays. If it does not meet these conditions, plants can stretch, postpone flowering and wither ahead of time.
The soil should be slightly acidic or neutral, moisture-permeable, light and loose, saturated with nutrients. Dense and poor soils before planting cuttings are enriched with peat, rotted manure or compost is introduced. Coarse sand is added as a drainage layer.
Cuttings are planted in open ground. Plants are not buried in the soil, since the root system develops parallel to the soil surface. Planting dates depend on the climatic conditions in a particular region. In the central regions of Russia, the culture is transferred to the open in the ground in the second half of May, when the average air and ground temperatures rise above +14 degrees.
Planting rooted cuttings is carried out as follows:
- Wells are prepared with a depth of 30-40 cm.
- Spill them with settled water.
- Drainage is poured at the bottom of each recess.
- Add a mixture of garden soil with vermicompost in a ratio of 20: 1.
- Cuttings of large chrysanthemums are placed in the holes, sprinkled with soil.
- If the variety is tall, the supports are immediately installed.
Multistem chrysanthemums are placed on the beds at a distance of 20-30 cm from each other, single-stemmed chrysanthemums are spaced 15 cm apart.
Planting large chrysanthemums is recommended in cloudy weather, if on sunny days - then early in the morning or late in the evening
Watering and feeding
For growth and abundant flowering, chrysanthemums need fertile soil. They respond well to fertilization. At the beginning of the growing season, when the green mass is growing, the plants require nitrogen and potassium complexes. For the first time in a season, root dressing is carried out 2-3 weeks after planting. A solution of ammonium nitrate is introduced. Then the procedure is repeated every 2 weeks.
Top dressing is combined with watering. When using nitrogen, the dosages recommended by manufacturers are observed, since an excess of a substance in the soil causes burns and darkening of the leaves, reduces the immune defense of plants, and leads to damage to aphids.
Important! Fertilizers cannot be applied during the coloring of the buds of large chrysanthemums.
After the formation of buds and until the time of cutting the inflorescences, phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are used. During the season, the plants are fed with them 2-3 times.
Chrysanthemums require daily watering immediately after planting for a week. Then the intervals between water procedures are increased, focusing on the weather conditions. In hot, dry weather, flowers are watered at least 2-3 times a week. The following rule is adhered to: the longer the intervals between waterings, the more abundant they should be.
Formation of large-flowered chrysanthemums
Large chrysanthemums need to be shaped correctly by choosing the best buds. The number of peduncles on the bush and the size of the inflorescences depend on this. The plant can have 1 or 3 stems, each of which blooms one flower.
When the planted cuttings are rooted in a new place, the first pinching is performed. Without it, primary buds do not produce full-fledged inflorescences. After 6-8 leaves appear on a large chrysanthemum, its crown is cut off. The plant releases new shoots. Gardeners choose a few of the strongest, and eliminate others.
The last pinching time depends on how long the inflorescences have been developing. In large chrysanthemums, between the pinching and the laying of the buds, it takes from 30 to 40 days, between the laying at the point of growth of the inflorescence before the onset of flowering - from 7 to 14 weeks, depending on the variety.
Wintering of large-flowered chrysanthemums
Large chrysanthemums in areas with cold winters are not left outdoors until spring. In the fall, they are dug up and stored at positive temperatures. In the southern regions, the culture can be left in flower beds for the winter.
After cutting the inflorescences, the mother liquors are cut off, leaving the lower part of the shoots. The dug rhizomes are placed in deep boxes, sprinkled with a moistened mixture of sand and peat. The containers are kept in greenhouses or on verandas before the onset of cold weather. In winter, they are sent to dark rooms where the temperature is maintained from +50 to –10 degrees.
Reproduction of large-flowered chrysanthemums
Large chrysanthemums are propagated by cuttings, as well as by dividing the bushes. These procedures are planned for May or even the beginning of summer, when the probability of frost and cold snaps is excluded.
The seed method does not allow to preserve varietal characteristics
Cuttings of large chrysanthemums are cut from shoots with 4 or more leaves. Their bases should not be soft or woody. The bottom leaf is removed for better rooting. A substrate is prepared for the planting material, which must pass moisture and air well. This could be:
- a mixture of peat and sand;
- vermiculite and sand;
- turf, leafy soil and sand in a ratio of 2: 2: 1;
- turf land, sand and peat in equal amounts.
The soil is moistened, sprinkled with a layer of sand. Cuttings are planted in it to a depth of 1–1.5 cm, the distance between them is made from 4 to 5 cm. In the room where the cuttings are rooted, the air temperature is maintained at +15 degrees. The soil should be slightly warmer.
Advice! During the first week, cuttings of large chrysanthemums need high humidity. They are covered with a film, sprayed or watered every 2-3 days, when the roots appear, the shelter is removed.
Diseases and pests
Large chrysanthemums are prone to gray rot and downy mildew. For the prevention and control of these diseases, plants are treated with fungicides.
Among insect pests, nematodes are especially dangerous for the culture. The symptom of the lesion is black merging spots on the lower leaves. Infected chrysanthemums do not respond to treatment. They need to be burned to prevent damage to healthy flowers.
Important! After removing the chrysanthemums on which the nematode has settled, the crop cannot be planted in this area for several years.
Photo of large chrysanthemums
Gardeners share photos of tall large-flowered chrysanthemums in their plots.
Chrysanthemums of different shades look great together in the same area
To decorate the site, you can plant flowers along the entire length of the fence.
Compositions are brighter if you combine specimens of different shades.
Large chrysanthemums are gorgeous, eye-catching flowers. They are able to decorate any space. The health and beauty of flowers depends on how correctly and regularly they care for large-flowered chrysanthemums.