Fruit monilial rot along with scab is the most common fungal disease of the apple tree, and in its harmfulness it often even exceeds the scab. It is able to infect fruits both on trees and during storage, making them practically unsuitable for consumption. No less dangerous is the fungus that causes fruit rot for shoots when mass drying of fruit wood and overgrowing branches occurs, and in severe cases the whole tree.
Fruit rot - A disease with a very wide range of host plants. It with equal success affects the fruits like pome fruits (apple tree, pear, quince, mountain ash) and stone fruit (plum, cherry plum, cherry, sweet cherry, apricot, peach) cultures. The rot on the fruit, as a rule, begins with a small certain brown spot, which grows quite quickly and covers almost the entire fruit almost immediately. Its flesh turns brown, softens and completely loses its consumer qualities. After seven to ten days, yellowish-beige rather large (about two to three millimeters in diameter) sporulation pads of this fungus appear in various concentric circles on the affected surface. Conidia are formed on them, which, carried by wind, rain and insects, infect various other fruits.
The infection enters the fetus through wounds on its skin. It can be wormholes, damage by a goose, birds, wasps, hail, diseases. Through a healthy intact skin, infection does not occur, with the exception of cases of close contact of a healthy fetus with a patient. The source of infection is the diseased fruits left hanging on a tree from last year, as well as twigs dried up from moniliosis, not removed during sanitary pruning.
Signs of the disease
The first signs of fruit rot disease appear with the first wormy scavenger, earlier in summer varieties, later in winter varieties. As the crop ripens, the number of affected fruits increases. If the rotten fruit remains on the tree, then the fungus from the stem penetrates into the fruit twig, spore, infects them and other nearby branches and hibernates there, and in spring it spreads into a young ovary, causing withering and death of the growing branches.
The rapid development of fruit rot is favored by warm -24-28 ° C and wet (not less than 75%) weather, thickened plantings and rapid development of scab, the spots of which are excellent gates for infection.
What to do with fruit rot?
Treatment of fruit rot in plants
Firstwhat is needed is preventive protection: a detailed pruning of trees that improves the illumination and ventilation of the crown. As a result, the crown should be transparent, but well filled with fruit fouling wood.
Second - phytosanitary double pruning with the removal of all shrunken and shrinking branches, rotten and mummified fruits. It is carried out in the fall after leaf fall, when the crown opens, and in the summer, when there are signs of damage to the branches by moniliosis and the first rotted fruits.
In addition, it is necessary to comply with agricultural standards for the care of tree trunks, to feed trees with macro- and microelements. Often, these measures are already enough to reduce the incidence of fruit rot and various other diseases.
Vertex and fruit rot
In the spring, in the phase of the green cone and the pink bud, copper-containing preparations should be used (a mixture of Bordeaux, azophos, Abiga peak, copper oxychloride, etc.) or chorus to prevent primary infection from overwintered affected branches, mummified fruits on trees. After flowering, all fungicidal treatments against scab act simultaneously against fruit rot.
In the autumn, after the necessary harvesting of your harvest, at the beginning of the fall, you need to treat with copper sulfate, a mixture of Bordeaux, cuproxate or another copper-containing preparation to destroy the remaining infection not only of fruit rot, but also of other diseases - scab, cancer.
In years with a large amount of precipitation, it is advisable to carry out an additional 1 - 2 treatments with copper-containing preparations, alternating them with other fungicides.
All varieties of fruit crops are affected by fruit rot, there are no immune ones, but the degree of damage can be different. Especially affected are apple varieties such as Antonovka, White drink, Iezen, exactly Suislepskoe, do not forget about Golden pepin, Sweetie, Orlik and Saffron Pepin. Highly resistant to fruit rot Banana, Belarusian synap, Darunak, Liberty, Welsey, Lovefam, Feymez, Yubilyar.