Ginger is a unique plant in its properties, and it can be grown not only at home, but also on ridges of open ground in the garden. Of course, this culture succeeds best in Russia in the regions with long and warm summers, as well as in Ukraine. In the most northern regions with unstable weather conditions, gardeners prefer growing a house.
Botanical description of ginger
Ginger (Zīngiber officināle) is a perennial herbaceous plant well known in our country, which naturally grows in the countries of South Asia. Despite the fact that the birthplace of culture has a very peculiar climate, many domestic gardeners quite successfully grow it in the country, in greenhouses and in open ground.
The adnexal root system is fibrous. A modified underground shoot looks like a root. From the rhizome, green staining grows aboveground shoots, as well as all the additional roots. Seasonings and various medicines are produced from the root. The stem part is upright, rounded, without pubescence. The presence of elongated internodes is characteristic. On the stem, an alternating simple, whole, lanceolate foliage grows. All leaves have a pointed apical part and a heart-shaped base.
Ginger: where does ginger grow and how does it bloom
Ginger is currently one of the most common and popular cultivated plants grown in Japan and Vietnam, as well as Brazil, Argentina and other tropical countries. Relatives of ginger include turmeric, cardamom, tulips and ginger lily.
Active flowering of ginger occurs in the spring and summer. Zygomorphic type flowers located on short peduncles. The culture blooms with very attractive spike inflorescences. The flower is represented by a green cup, consisting of five sepals, a separate whisk of violet-brown or yellow-orange petals. Flowering ends with the formation of fruits in the form of tricuspid boxes.
In natural conditions, ginger blooms in the second year of life. In the conditions of indoor and home gardening, flowering ginger is a rather rare phenomenon. When cultivated for industrial purposes, harvesting is practiced before the flowering phase, after the foliage and stem part of the plant begins to dry. In room conditions, with proper care, it is possible to obtain flowers, but their quantity and quality of flowering will directly depend on the observance of cultivation technology.
Ginger: Planting and Care
How to grow ginger
Most often, flower growers and gardeners of our country prefer the following relatively unpretentious types and varieties of ginger:
- View "Zerumbet" with rose-like flowers;
- A variety of "Ginger Torch" with pink, low-decorative inflorescences;
- View "Wonderful" with long flowering red flowers;
- Variety "Kasumunar" with white flowers resembling an orchid;
- View "Purple" with a powerful stem and decorative peduncles on it;
- View "Japanese" with fragrant flowers and early flowering.
In home gardening, ginger is most often planted and grown as an annual plant, observing the following cultivation recommendations:
- when grown in rooms with insufficiently high temperature conditions, watering plants should be moderate, as the top layer of soil dries in a flower pot;
- on hot days and in rooms with high temperature indicators, irrigation with warm, settled water is carried out often enough to prevent drying out of the nutrient substrate;
- in the summer, a flower pot with ginger can be put on a balcony or loggia, as well as taken out into the open ground or a greenhouse.
To get a healthy and beautiful plant, ginger needs to be provided with regular spraying, a sufficiently high level of humidity and heat. Reducing irrigation measures in the autumn period will allow to slightly dry the earthen lump and improves the mass gain by the root system. For the rest period, temperature indices in the range of 10-15 are necessaryaboutC. At the stage of active vegetation, you should adhere to a temperature of 18-22aboutFROM.
In the open ground
in open ground, growing ginger may be accompanied by some difficulties due to the botanical features of this heat-loving crop. The full ripening of rhizomes requires at least eight months of cultivation in the soil, subject to the presence of favorable weather factors. Experienced gardeners recommend planting the plant under temporary shelters, and care as follows:
- planting is carried out in the early spring, in well-lit areas with little shade from the midday sun;
- the site for planting and growing should not be negatively affected by drafts and closely located groundwater;
- the soil should be light and fertile, with average acidity, dug in advance and freed from weeds;
- in the process of pre-planting soil preparation, it is recommended to introduce basic mineral fertilizers, as well as well-rotted manure with the addition of a small amount of medium-grained sand;
- on a quality planting material there must be at least two well-developed eyes, of which quality sprouts will appear during the preliminary soaking;
- in the middle lane of our country, it is recommended to germinate ginger at home, for which you need to plant it in a nutritious soil substrate in mid-February, after which it is transplanted to a permanent place in the garden as soon as the threat of late spring frosts passes.
The main measures for the care of ginger in open ground are relatively abundant irrigation, timely application of mineral and organic fertilizers, loosening of the soil and regular removal of weeds. In the spring-summer period, the culture should be fed three times a month with complex mineral fertilizers or a weak solution of mulleinbut. In the autumn, organics and potash fertilizers are used for top dressing.
When grown in order to obtain a crop for use in food, the rhizome is dug up in the autumn period, after the yellowing of the stem part and mass decay of the leaves. If ginger is grown as a decorative crop, then the plant can be left for wintering in the ground using the dry shelter protection method, or transplanted rhizome into a flower pot, and then placed at home for the winter.
Features of plant propagation
Seed propagation is practically not used in indoor floriculture, since ginger grown in cultivated conditions does not form seed material, so there is only one way that even a not too experienced gardener can reproduce ginger on his own. Vegetative propagation of this culture involves root division, which includes:
- competent selection of high-quality planting material;
- stimulation of growth processes of the kidneys in the aquatic environment;
- pre-planting division of the rhizome into separate parts having several kidneys;
- disinfection in a weak pink solution of potassium permanganate.
Planting substrate for reproduction must necessarily have sufficient air permeability and be rich in nutrients. A composition based on turf soil, humus and medium-grained sand mixed in a ratio of 1: 1: 1 is very suitable for propagation. When using ready-made soil substrates, preference should be given to mixtures with a pH of 5-7, suitable for cultivation for decorative deciduous plants. The maximum penetration into the soil is a couple of centimeters. Rhizomes need to be placed in the horizontal direction, with the kidneys up. Compliance with reproduction technology allows you to get the first shoots in about a month.
The technology of growing ginger from the root
A root suitable for growing in open ground or indoor floriculture should have a smooth and silky surface, with a minimum of fiber and a significant number of healthy buds that resemble potato “eyes”. The division of the root into fragments is carried out by "jumpers", then you need to soak in warm water for several hours.
Slices at the root are preferably treated with chopped charcoal. Planting is carried out in a wide, but not too deep landing tank, filled with a layer of drainage and fertile soil, pre-treated solution based on "Fitosporin". A pot with a planted root must be installed in a warm and bright place. If root cultivation is carried out in early spring or even in winter, then the chances are good that the crop will bloom.
Useful properties of ginger
Growing ginger is not too difficult. It is enough to protect the culture from direct sunlight, as well as heavy soil that does not allow air to reach the root system and excess watering to get a healthy and very useful plant.